Page 74 - July 2021 Litterateur
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surrounding reality as far from being rosy. He talks about it directly: “I’ve many worries…” There are
                  lexical and morphological repetitions (“day”, circle”, ”work”). But after his mother’s death’s news the
                  hero fully shows his emotionality. His external portrait is given. The description is created with short
                  syntagmas’  help,  they  create  a  dramatic  effect.  Direct  speech  is  used;  hyperbole  “the  chest  was
                  torn”, and epithet “a cry graving” are also used. Direct speech simultaneously tells the reader what
                  happened (so, the telegram’s content is not given, and at the same time it characterizes the hero’s
                  grief’s magnitude; he puts all grief’s strength in one cry. And in one word). In the fifth stanza there’s

                  again  a  return  from  the  portrait  to  the  monologue.  The  lyric  hero  ponders  of  the  reasons  that
                  happened and reproaches himself. For this purpose the “indifferent” and the hyperbole: “a century
                  won’t be enough to expiate my sin” are used.
                  The fact that his mother’s death is not directly mentioned can also be considered to be a technique
                  characterizing the hero’s mental state. The word “death” does not appear anywhere. This stands for
                  the hero’s being unable to say it out loud.
                  There is no doubt that the lyric hero is the hero’s protagonist and shares the author’s idea put into
                  the poem’s idea.
                  Other  images  are  presented  in  the  poem  little.  This  is  the  hero’s  work’s  image.  And  the  master’s
                  image. But the master’s image is introduced in order to characterize the lyrical hero. The master is
                  reported to be “an old Bolshevik”. He is also characterized by a direct speech (“industrial minister”)
                  which presents the Soviet era’s realities.


                  Composition.
                   We can say that the whole poem is a big metaphor. This metaphor reflects the son’s wrong behavior

                  to his mother.
                    All  the  first  five  stanzas  are  intended  to  illustrate  the  sixth  one  which  gives  a  summary  and  a
                  conclusion.  The  first  stanza  is  the  beginning  in  which  we  learn  about  the  hero’s  departure.  The
                  second and the third stanzas are the action’s development. In them we learn what happens to the
                  hero  after  leaving.  They  are  built  on  contrast’s  principles.  In  the  second  stanza  the  hero  is  still
                  thinking  about  his  mother,  he  does  not  like  the  monotonous  work  (see  the  section  “Figurative
                  system”). However, in the third stanza the tension is smoothed out, the hero’s success is reported.
                  And  then,  by  contrast,  there  is  a  climax  in  the  fourth  stanza.  The  thoughts  about  mother  that
                  tormented the hero in the second stanza get got a new direction. Now tragic. In the fifth stanza the
                  lyric  hero  projects  his  experience  on  himself,  in  the  sixth  stanza,  the  lyric  hero  projects  his
                  experience on the whole world.



                  Genre.
                   This poem’s genre is the message. This is evident both in the title and the last stanza when the lyric
                  hero appeals to readers not to act as he did.
                   The most interesting thing is that the poem is not purely lyrical, it has a plot and therefore we can
                  talk about the lyrical and epical aspect.
                  Idea, problem. Topic, conflict.
                  The problem is adult children’s attitude to their mothers.
                  The idea is mothers should not be forgotten.
                  The topic is touching the family’s, relations’, work’s themes.
                  Conflict is in the hero’s moral conflict with himself.


                  Cultural and historical context.
                   The semantic halo emphasizes this poem’s closeness with such literary works as Esenin’s poem

                  “Letter to mother”, Asly Tokombayev’s “Mother’s heart” (“at night a broken cough is sounding, an
                  old woman has fallen ill…”), as well as with K.G. Paustovsky’s story “Telegram”.
                   The poems have the same genre of message, they both have similar themes (“family relations”) and
                  similar images (a lyric hero who left home but still loves his mother).
                   Although the poem’s problems belong to eternal themes’ category, there are details in the poem that
                  clearly refer us to the present: the old master is a former Bolshevik, young people’s outflow from
                  smaller settlements to large settlements. It’s a sensual and heartfelt poem.

                       Igor Toporov, Ufa, Russia                                                    74         Litterateur

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