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e-ISSN: 2582-5208
              International Research Journal of  Modernization in Engineering  Technology and Science
              Volume:03/Issue:05/May-2021                Impact Factor- 5.354                                     www.irjmets.com

             Tools helps us to acquire a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a task of a human or even animal. Container,
             Spear, arrow, plow, hammer etc. are examples of tools which reduces physical labor and help man to in hunting
             food in the prehistoric period. They can be considered to be the first tool. Thus these first tools paved the way
             of Instrumentation in the world and initiated the first stage of Technology.
             MACHINES
             First  stage  of  Instrumentation  or  the  first  technological  stage  prolonged  till  the  stage  of  creation  of  the
             machines. A machine can also be considered as a tool, the difference is the capacity and capability which could
             do a large volume of work a tool does. It substitutes the human physical effort and it requires an operator to
             control its function. The machines become popular and extensive with the industrial revolution.
             AUTOMATION
             The final stage of evolution of technology is the automation. Automation refers to a machine which substitutes
             the human control element with an algorithm or set of instructions. With the advent of automation, the world
             has  changed  dramatically  and  drastically  and  Instrumentation  become  an  integral  part  of  all  Engineering
             disciplines.
                                      IV.    SIGNIFICANCE OF INSTRUMENTATION
             Various Social evolution theories has been put forward by many intellects. Morgan is one of them. According to
             Morgan,  there  are  three  major  stages  of  social  evolution  namely  savagery,  barbarism  and  civilization.  With
             regard to these evolution, the technological milestones can be recorded as follows.
             In  the  savage  era,  fire,  bow  and  pottery  was  the  technological  breakthroughs.  In  the  barbarian  era,
             domestication of animals, agriculture and metalworking laid its signature. Civilization era saw the advent of
             alphabet and writing.
             Having  a  thorough  scrutiny,  it  can  be  seen  that  all  these  eras  have  the  application  of  Instrumentation  in
             different forms of Tools, Measurement and control.
             White divided the history of human by energy. He advocates that the measure of reckoning the evolution of
             culture is energy.  He says that there are five stages of development of mankind.
                 1.  Human used energy of their muscles
                 2.  Human used energy of domesticated animals
                 3.  Human used energy of plants
                 4.  Human used energy of natural resources.
                 5.  Human used nuclear energy.
             As said earlier, in all these stages, Instrumentation find its application in the form of tools, Measurement and
             Control.
             Even  if  we  consider  differentiation  of  societies  of  Lenski  which  is  based  on  their  level  of  technology,
             communication  and  economy  which  classify  the  societies  as  hunters  and  gatherers,  simple  agricultural,
             advanced agricultural and industrial, we can find the application of Instrumentation as referred above.
                                        V.      INSTRUMENTATION IN COVID-19

             Now we are in the period of COVID-19. It forced all human beings to change their social life. Online meeting and
             communication  had  become  the  order  of  the  day.  Redefinition  of  communities  is  taking  place  such  that  no
             person comes face  to face.  Social gathering or places of social group started  withering. Covid-19 shut down
             people  on  their  own  premises.  Even  employees  are  working  isolation.  Opportunities  of  jobs  existed  in  all
             countries  got  reduced.  Many  became  jobless  and  they  look  for  Governments  for  rehabilitation.  Students-
             particularly  schooling  category-  lack  togetherness  and  teamwork,  result  in  a  future  generation  with  virtual
             contacts with each other. This may lead to a non-empathetic generation with irresponsive to the society.
             Also, there are new predictions coming up about the next pandemic. Pandemic related to climate change and
             bioterrorism are being suspected. Climate change will force us to sit in dark and the bio terrorism will be more
             selective than virus.
             Once the pandemic outbreak lashed the globe, different tools and machines are used for identification of virus,
             diagnosis and developing Covid 19 defense protocol including development of vaccines and drugs. Automation

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